Order of operations
The list below displays the order of operations when an attacker attempts to damage a defender:
- Initial damage
Damage sources have a base damage that can be increased by various stats. Stats are only applied once per calculation.
- Flat damage
- Damage conversion
- Added as modifiers adds a percentage of one damage type as another damage type, for example Gain #% of Physical Damage as Extra Cold Damage during effect or You and nearby allies add #% of your Physical Damage as Cold Damage.
- Converted to modifiers changes one type of damage into another, for example #% of Cold Damage Converted to Fire Damage.
- Extra damage taken from critical strikes Directly multiplies the critical strike damage multiplier greater than 100% (+50% by default). (e.g. 60% reduced Extra Damage taken from Critical Strikes will cause a critical strike to deal 120% of the default hit)
Incoming damage can be shifted to another damage type. It is usually done by utilizing an item which offers the #% of X Damage taken as Y modifier, for example:
- Lightning CoilLightning Coil
Desert BrigandineArmour: (714-992)
Movement Speed: -3%Requires Level 60, 96 Str, 96 DexAdds 1 to (20-30) Lightning Damage to Attacks
(90-120)% increased Armour and Evasion
+(60-80) to maximum Life
-60% to Lightning Resistance
50% of Physical Damage from Hits taken as Lightning Damage"There's nothing like imminent death
to galvanize one's purpose in life."
- Malachai the Soulless.
- Cloak of FlameCloak of Flame
Scholar's RobeEnergy Shield: (43-53)
Movement Speed: -3%Requires Level 18, 55 Int+(50-75)% to Fire Resistance
(40-75)% increased Ignite Duration on Enemies
Reflects 100 Fire Damage to Melee Attackers
40% of Physical Damage taken as Fire DamageHe who sows an ember shall reap an inferno.
- Incandescent HeartIncandescent Heart
Saintly ChainmailArmour: (1283-1567)
Energy Shield: (307-374)
Movement Speed: -5%Requires Level 70, 99 Str, 115 Int(220-240)% increased Armour and Energy Shield
+(80-90) to maximum Life
(0.8-1)% of Attack Damage Leeched as Life
Gain (10-20)% of Elemental Damage as Extra Chaos Damage
25% of Elemental Damage from Hits taken as Chaos Damage
(20-30)% increased Light Radius
Light Radius is based on Energy Shield instead of LifeOnly light may banish the shadows from this land
And the black lies wrapped around your heart
- Font of ThunderFont of Thunder
Mirrored Spiked ShieldChance to Block: 26%
Energy Shield: (155-210)
Movement Speed: -3%Requires Level 66, 85 Dex, 85 Int+5% chance to Suppress Spell Damage(400-500)% increased Evasion and Energy Shield
(25-40)% increased Mana Regeneration Rate
+50% chance to be Shocked
40% of Cold Damage taken as Lightning Damage
40% of Fire Damage taken as Lightning DamageThe lightning fears not the flame.
- Damage can be avoided, for example with GlitterdiscGlitterdisc
Burnished Spiked ShieldChance to Block: 26%
Energy Shield: (72-110)
Movement Speed: -3%Requires Level 27, 37 Dex, 37 Int+5% chance to Suppress Spell Damage(120-140)% increased Evasion and Energy Shield
+(20-30) to maximum Energy Shield
+(30-50) to maximum Life
10% increased Rarity of Items found
25% chance to Avoid Fire Damage from Hits
You always Ignite while BurningIzaro's insistence on using lava
resulted in some surprising material discoveries.. Avoiding damage stops the damage of a hit. It still counts as a hit, even if it only is 0 damage.
- Elemental and chaos damage is mitigated by its respective resistance.
- Physical damage is mitigated by the sum of Physical Damage Reduction, up to its 90% cap, from:
After damage mitigation, modifiers to damage taken are applied. Flat amounts are applied first, then the sum of all increases/reductions and lastly with more/less multipliers applied separately:
|1||±# X Damage taken from Y||AshrendAshrend|
Buckskin TunicEvasion: (316-442)
Movement Speed: -3%Requires Level 17, 53 Dex(80-100)% increased Evasion Rating
+(40-50)% to Fire Resistance
Cannot be Ignited
(75-150)% increased Physical Damage with Ranged Weapons
-(60-30) Physical Damage taken from Attack HitsThe blasted oak stands forever.
Plate VestArmour: (19-27)
Movement Speed: -3%+(30-60) to maximum Life
-(15-10) Physical Damage taken from Attack Hits
1000% of Melee Physical Damage taken reflected to AttackerIt is safer to be feared than to be loved.
Onyx AmuletRequires Level 20+(10-16) to all Attributes+(80-100) to all Attributes
-4 Physical Damage taken from Attack HitsMindless rage will shake the world,
Cunning lies will bend it.
Reckless haste will break the world,
And into darkness send it.
|2||#% increased/reduced X Damage taken||Shock |
VulnerabilityVulnerabilitySpell, AoE, Duration, Curse, Physical, Hex
Cost: (16-33) Mana
Cast Time: 0.50 sec
AoE Radius: 22Requires Level 24Curse all targets in an area, causing them to take increased physical damage. Attacks against the cursed enemies have a chance to inflict bleeding.Base duration is (8.00-11.80) seconds
+(0-1) metre to radius
Cursed enemies take (15-30)% increased Physical Damage
Attacks Hits against Cursed Enemies have 25% chance to inflict Bleeding
Additional Effects per 1% Quality:
0.5% increased Duration of Bleeding on Cursed EnemiesPlace into an item socket of the right colour to gain this skill. Right click to remove from a socket.
Ezomyte BurgonetArmour: (692-838)Requires Level 60, 138 Str+(20-25) to all Attributes
Adds 40 to 60 Physical Damage to Attacks
+(100-125)% to Melee Critical Strike Multiplier
(100-120)% increased Armour
(40-50)% increased Physical Damage takenWhen you have slain all of your enemies,
what is left to fear?
|3||#% more/less X Damage taken||Fortify |
Arctic ArmourArctic ArmourSpell, Duration, Cold
Reservation: 25% Mana
Cooldown Time: 1.00 sec
Can Store 1 Use(s)
Cast Time: InstantRequires Level 16Conjures an icy barrier that chills enemies when they hit you. You drop chilled ground while moving, and take less Fire and Physical damage while stationary.Base duration is (2.50-4.40) seconds
Buff grants (11-21)% less Physical Damage taken from Hits while stationary
Buff grants (11-20)% less Fire Damage taken from Hits while stationary
Chill Enemy for 0.5 seconds when Hit, reducing their Action Speed by 30%
Buff grants Immunity to Freeze
Additional Effects per 1% Quality:
1% increased Skill Effect DurationPlace into an item socket of the right colour to gain this skill. Right click to remove from a socket.
Exquisite LeatherEvasion: (1548-2106)
Movement Speed: -3%Requires Level 62, 170 Dex(120-160)% increased Evasion Rating
+(30-50)% to Fire Resistance
35% less Damage taken if you have not been Hit Recently
100% increased Evasion Rating if you have been Hit RecentlyDo not hide your flaws, your cracks,
mend them, and display them proudly.
For it is these that set us apart.
Infused Channelling SupportInfused Channelling SupportSupport, Channelling, Duration
Cost & Reservation Multiplier: 130%Requires Level 4Supports any channelling skill, protecting you from damage while you channel it. Cannot support skills used by totems. Cannot modify the skills of minions.Infusion lasts 6 seconds after you finish Channelling
Gain Infusion after Channelling a Supported Skill for (1.6-1) second
Supported Skills deal (15-24)% more Damage
Infusion grants 10% more Damage of Types matching Supported Skill Gem's tags
While Channelling a Supported Skill, take 8% less Damage from Hits of types matching the Skill Gem's Tags
Additional Effects per 1% Quality:
Gain Infusion after Channelling a Supported Skill for -0.02 secondsThis is a Support Gem. It does not grant a bonus to your character, but to skills in sockets connected to it. Place into an item socket connected to a socket containing the Skill Gem you wish to augment. Right click to remove from a socket.
Stun chance is rolled based on damage at this point.
Block and Spell block.
- Effects that change the damage to be taken from other objects 'before you', such as The Jinxed Juju.
- Effects that change the damage to be taken from other objects 'before your life or energy shield', such as Frost Shield.
- Your Aegis (you can't have multiple aegises).
- Guard skill buffs.
Effects that count the amount of damage taken by the player, such as Cast when Damage Taken Support and Bloodnotch use the damage value at this point.
Damage is removed from player resources in the following order. If damage amount exceeds the amount of a resource that is available, the remaining damage will be taken from the next resource. Some effects allow damage to bypass a resource, in which case the bypassing damage will apply directly to the next resource instead.
- Ward takes the damage first if it's not broken, and is then broken (all ward is removed from the resource pool) for a duration.
- Damage is taken from energy shield before the resource that it is protecting (life by default, or mana if using Eldritch Battery).
- By default, all Chaos Damage bypasses energy shield and applies to the resource that it is protecting instead. This applies regardless if energy shield is protecting life or mana.
- Energy shield recharge is interrupted when energy shield or the resource it is protecting is lost due to damage.
- If Eternal Youth is allocated, only directly losing life due to damage will interrupt life recharge. Delayed life loss from Petrified Blood or Progenesis does not interrupt life recharge.
- #% of the remaining damage is removed from mana, if granted by an effect such as Mind over Matter or The Ivory Tower.
- The remaining damage is removed from Life. Life does not protect any other resource. If all Life is removed, you die.
- Life loss can be prevented by various effects. Effects that grant #% of life loss prevented are multiplicative rather than additive
- #% of Life loss from damage is prevented while affected by Progenesis and an equal amount of life loss is applied over time.
- #% of remaining Life loss from damage that would reduce your life below 50% while affected by Petrified Blood is prevented and a proportional amount of life loss is applied over time.
- If Dissolution of the Flesh is socketed, all remaining life loss is prevented and that amount is reserved as life.
Damage over Time generally follows the same principle, however this damage source doesn't hit which means that it ignores evasion, damage shifts, armour and other mechanics that requires a hit. Other sources of physical damage reduction will apply as usual though. As for damage taken step, modifiers that generally affect Damage taken or Damage taken from Damage over Time will apply, but Damage taken from Hits won't.
If a damage roll is unlucky, the damage calculation will be rolled twice and the lower value will be chosen. Rolls to crit/evade/dodge/block are unchanged and only happen once. This can effectively reduce damage by up to one third if the damage has a very low minimum, with the benefit decreasing rapidly: Damage with minimum at half the maximum will only be reduced by one ninth.
- Mark_GGG (February 22, 2015). "Elemental To Physical Conversion". Official Path of Exile Forums. Retrieved March 18, 2016.
- Mark_GGG (November 27, 2013). "Avatar of Fire ~ Elemental Damage Nodes". Official Path of Exile Forum. Retrieved March 2, 2016.
- Daniel_GGG (January 2, 2014). "reflect mechanics VS evasion,blocking,acrobatics". Official Path of Exile Forums. Retrieved November 21, 2015.
- Mark_GGG (September 26, 2013). "Specifics on Lightning Coil mechanics?". Official Path of Exile Forums. Retrieved November 21, 2015.
- Mark_GGG (June 22, 2016). "Mechanical Questions Thread". Official Path of Exile Forums. Retrieved June 22, 2016.
- Mark_GGG (June 23, 2016). "Regarding Glitterdisc". Official Path of Exile Forums Private Messages. Retrieved June 15, 2020.
- Malice (November 14, 2011). "Mechanics thread". Official Path of Exile Forums. Retrieved November 22, 2015.
- Mark_GGG (May 15, 2014). "defensive mechanisms activate in which order?". Official Path of Exile Forums. Retrieved May 15, 2014.
- Mark_GGG (November 2nd, 2021). "Damage prevention from suppression is applied a little before Block". Path of Exile subreddit. Retrieved August 5th, 2022.
- Mark_GGG (August 5th, 2022). "Damage prevention from suppression is applied a little before Block". Path of Exile subreddit. Retrieved August 5th, 2022.
- Mark_GGG (August 5, 2022). "Utter trust in your defense unleashes ultimate potential.". Official Path of Exile Subreddit. Retrieved August 6, 2022.
- Mark_GGG (May 24, 2019). "Utter trust in your defense unleashes ultimate potential.". Official Path of Exile Subreddit. Retrieved May 25, 2019.
- Community Team (May 19th, 2021). "Game Mechanics Q&A Answers". Official Path of Exile Forums. Retrieved August 6th, 2021.
- Mark_GGG (July 19th, 2021). "Ward as an Overlooked Defensive Mechanic - Precis of the Implications". Path of Exile subreddit. Retrieved August 3rd, 2021.
- Mark_GGG (May 13, 2013 4:01 AM). "p/c new ring lori's lantern". Official Path of Exile Forums. Retrieved September 22, 2013.